How To Plant Alfalfa [ Full Guide ]

Alfalfa is a versatile and valuable legume that is commonly used in animal feed and forage. It’s also an excellent nitrogen fixer, making it a beneficial crop for improving soil fertility. Planting alfalfa requires careful attention to soil preparation, variety selection, and planting techniques to ensure a successful crop. This comprehensive guide will walk you through the process of planting alfalfa, covering everything from understanding its requirements to selecting the right site and preparing the soil for optimal growth.

Quick Answer: How To Plant Alfalfa

  1. Selecting the right site: Choose a well-drained, sunny location with a soil pH between 6.5 and 7.5.

  2. Soil preparation: Perform a soil test, ensure proper drainage, and address any nutrient deficiencies.

  3. Seeding: Plant alfalfa seeds at a depth of ¼ to ½ inch in fine-textured soil or ½ to 1 inch in coarse-textured soil.

  4. Fertilization: Apply phosphate and potash based on soil test recommendations, and avoid nitrogen at planting.

  5. Inoculation: Use a rhizobium inoculant to promote nitrogen fixation.

  6. Establishment: Adequate moisture and weed control are crucial during the establishment phase.

  7. Harvest: Once established, alfalfa can be harvested for hay or used for grazing.

Now, let’s dive into a more detailed understanding of each step in the process.

Understanding Alfalfa Requirements

Before planting alfalfa, it’s important to understand the specific requirements of this legume. Alfalfa thrives in well-drained soil with a pH level between 6.5 and 7.5. It requires full sunlight for optimal growth and does not tolerate waterlogged or compacted soil. Additionally, as a legume, alfalfa has a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia bacteria, which enable it to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere, reducing the need for synthetic fertilizers.

Alfalfa is also a deep-rooted plant, capable of penetrating soil to depths of 15 feet or more under optimal conditions. Its extensive root system allows it to access water and nutrients from deeper within the soil profile, making it valuable for improving soil structure and fertility.

Selecting The Right Site For Planting

Choosing the right site is crucial for successful alfalfa cultivation. Look for a location with well-drained soil to prevent waterlogging, as standing water can lead to root rot and poor plant development. Moreover, select a spot that receives abundant sunlight throughout the day, as alfalfa thrives in full sun. Ensure that the chosen site is free from competition with other aggressive weeds or grasses that might hinder the establishment of the alfalfa crop.

Soil testing is an essential step in site selection. A soil test will provide valuable information about the pH, nutrient levels, and organic matter content of the soil, enabling you to make informed decisions about soil amendments and fertilization before planting. Conduct a soil test at least 3 to 6 months before planting to allow ample time for any necessary adjustments.

Preparing The Soil For Alfalfa Planting

Proper soil preparation is critical to ensure the success of an alfalfa crop. Begin by addressing any issues identified in the soil test, such as pH imbalances or nutrient deficiencies. If the pH is outside the ideal range of 6.5 to 7.5, consider incorporating lime to adjust it accordingly. However, lime should be applied well in advance of planting, as it takes time to alter soil pH.

In addition to pH adjustments, ensure that the soil has good drainage. If the soil is compacted or poorly drained, consider implementing practices such as subsoiling or installing drainage systems to improve the soil structure and prevent waterlogging.

After addressing soil pH and drainage issues, it’s important to make sure that the soil contains adequate levels of phosphorus and potassium, as these are crucial for alfalfa growth. Apply phosphate and potash based on the recommendations from the soil test, avoiding the use of nitrogen fertilizer at planting, as excessive nitrogen can inhibit the formation of nodules and the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by the rhizobia bacteria.

Choosing Alfalfa Varieties

Selecting the right alfalfa variety is an important consideration that can significantly impact the success of your crop. Consider factors such as the local climate, the intended use of the alfalfa (grazing, hay production, etc.), and disease resistance when choosing a variety. Consult with local agricultural extension services or experienced growers to identify alfalfa varieties that are well-adapted to your specific growing region.

When selecting a variety, also consider the dormancy rating, which indicates the adaptation of the variety to the local climate and growing season length. Varieties with different dormancy ratings are available, ranging from very non-dormant (VND) to extremely dormant (ED). Choose a variety with a dormancy rating that aligns with your local climate and growing conditions.

Alfalfa is a valuable and versatile crop that, when planted and managed correctly, can provide a reliable source of forage for livestock, improve soil fertility, and contribute to sustainable agricultural practices. By understanding the specific requirements of alfalfa, selecting an optimal planting site, preparing the soil thoroughly, and choosing the right variety, you can set the stage for a successful alfalfa crop that will benefit your farm or agricultural operation for years to come. Implementing these best practices for planting alfalfa will contribute to the successful establishment and long-term productivity of this valuable legume.

Seed Selection And Preparation

Alfalfa (scientific name: Medicago sativa) is a versatile and nutrient-rich forage crop that is commonly used for livestock feed. It also serves as a valuable source of soil improvement and erosion prevention. Alfalfa is a perennial legume that grows well in a wide range of climates and soil types. However, successful alfalfa cultivation requires careful planning and implementation.

Selecting the right variety of alfalfa seed is crucial for a successful crop. Varieties differ in their characteristics such as yield potential, resistance to diseases, and tolerance to specific climates and soil conditions. You should consult with local agricultural experts or extension agents to determine the best variety for your region.

Additionally, it is important to ensure that the seed is of high quality and germination rate. Purchasing certified seeds from reputable suppliers is recommended to ensure the best possible start for your alfalfa crop. Here are some important steps you should take to prepare the seed for planting:

  1. Cleaning: It is essential to remove any impurities or damaged seeds from the batch. Cleaning can be done by passing the seed through a series of screens or using an air-separator to remove lighter or damaged seeds.

  2. Scarification: Alfalfa seeds have a hard outer seed coat that can inhibit germination. Scarification involves mechanically breaking or thinning the outer seed coat to promote germination. This process can be done by rubbing the seed gently with sandpaper or using a specialized seed scarifier.

  3. Inoculation: Alfalfa is a legume, and like other legumes, it forms a beneficial symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria called Rhizobia. These bacteria help convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be used by the plant. Inoculating the seed with Rhizobia ensures that this beneficial bacteria is present when the seeds germinate. Commercial inoculants are available and should be applied according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

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Seedbed Preparation And Planting Techniques

Creating a suitable seedbed is crucial for the establishment and growth of alfalfa. Proper seedbed preparation allows for good seed-to-soil contact, optimal drainage, and root development. Follow these steps to prepare the seedbed:

  1. Soil Testing: Before preparing the seedbed, it is recommended to conduct a soil test to determine the soil’s nutrient content and pH level. Alfalfa prefers soil with a pH range of 6.5 to 7.5. If the soil pH is outside this range, it may be necessary to amend the soil with lime or sulfur to adjust the pH.

  2. Soil Preparation: Begin by clearing the field of any obstructions such as rocks or debris. Then, plow or till the soil to a depth of 8 to 12 inches to improve soil structure and eliminate compaction. Avoid working the soil when it is wet to prevent soil compaction.

  3. Leveling: Smooth and level the field using a drag or roller to ensure an even distribution of moisture and nutrients during irrigation and rainfall.

  4. Seed Rate and Planting Depth: The ideal seeding rate for alfalfa depends on the region, intended use, and variety. Generally, the recommended seeding rate ranges from 15 to 25 pounds per acre. The seeds should be planted at a depth of ¼ to ½ inch. Planting too deep may result in poor emergence.

  5. Planting Methods: Alfalfa seeds can be planted using several methods, including broadcasting, drilling, or using a precision planter. Broadcasting involves scattering the seeds evenly over the seedbed with a seeder or spreader. Drilling uses a grain drill to place the seeds at the desired depth. Precision planters provide accurate seed placement and spacing, which can result in better crop establishment.

  6. Rolling or Packing: After planting, it is advisable to roll or pack the soil to ensure good seed-to-soil contact. This facilitates germination and helps prevent seedling diseases.

  7. Irrigation: Immediately after planting, ensure the seedbed receives adequate moisture for germination. Irrigation should be done gently to prevent soil erosion or seed displacement.

Fertilization And Irrigation For Alfalfa

Proper fertilization and irrigation are essential for the healthy growth and productivity of alfalfa. Here are key considerations for both practices:

  1. Fertilization: Before applying fertilizers, it is important to conduct a soil test to determine the nutrient requirements of your specific crop and soil conditions. Alfalfa has high nutrient demands, especially for phosphorus and potassium. Nitrogen fertilizers should be used sparingly, as alfalfa is a legume that can fix its own nitrogen. It is generally recommended to use a balanced fertilizer with a ratio of 1-1-1 or 1-2-2 (N-P-K) for alfalfa.

    The timing and method of fertilizer application will depend on local conditions and the growth stage of the crop. Most fertilizers are applied in split applications, with the first dose being applied just before or shortly after the first cutting, and subsequent applications following each cutting. Incorporating the fertilizer into the soil or applying it through irrigation (if available) can enhance nutrient uptake.

  2. Irrigation: Adequate water supply is critical for alfalfa production, especially during drought periods. Proper irrigation management maximizes yield and helps maintain the nutritional quality of the forage. Here are some guidelines to follow:

    • Water requirements: Alfalfa has high water requirements and typically requires 20 to 30 inches of water per growing season. Monitor soil moisture levels regularly to determine the need for irrigation.

    • Irrigation scheduling: Alfalfa should be irrigated when approximately 50% of the available soil moisture has been depleted. This can be determined using soil moisture sensors or by conducting regular soil moisture tests at various depths.

    • Irrigation methods: The most common irrigation methods for alfalfa include furrow, sprinkler, and center pivot irrigation. Each method has its advantages and considerations, but the goal is to provide uniform water distribution across the field.

    • Timing of irrigation: It is best to irrigate alfalfa during the early morning or late afternoon to minimize water loss due to evaporation. Avoid irrigating during windy conditions that can cause uneven water distribution.

    • Drainage: Proper drainage is crucial to prevent waterlogging and root damage. Ensure that the field has sufficient natural or artificial drainage to avoid waterlogged conditions.

Managing Weeds In Alfalfa Fields

Effective weed control is essential to ensure the productivity and quality of alfalfa crops. Weeds compete for nutrients, sunlight, and water, which can significantly reduce the yield and quality of the forage. Here are some strategies to manage weeds in alfalfa fields:

  1. Pre-Plant Weed Control: Before planting alfalfa, ensure the field is free of weeds by thoroughly controlling existing vegetation. This can be achieved through mechanical methods like plowing or tilling, or through the use of herbicides. The specific herbicides and application rates should be determined based on the weed species present and the local regulations.

  2. Weed Identification: Familiarize yourself with the common weed species in your region and their life cycles. This knowledge will help you develop effective weed management strategies and select appropriate herbicides.

  3. Post-Emergence Weed Control: After the alfalfa has emerged, it is important to control any weeds that appear. Hand weeding can be done for small areas, but for larger fields, herbicides are commonly used. It is crucial to choose herbicides that are safe for alfalfa and effective against the target weed species. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for application rates, timing, and precautions.

  4. Mowing and Cutting: Regular mowing or cutting of alfalfa helps control weeds by suppressing their growth and preventing seed production. Cutting the alfalfa at the appropriate height (typically 2-4 inches above the ground) can minimize competition from weed species.

  5. Crop Rotation: Rotating alfalfa with other crops can disrupt the life cycle of weeds and reduce their populations. Consider incorporating crops that compete strongly with weeds, such as small grains or annual forages, into your rotation plan.

  6. Monitoring: Regularly inspect your alfalfa field for weed infestation. Early detection and prompt action can prevent the weeds from causing significant damage to the crop. Scouting the field allows you to identify problem areas and target weed control efforts more effectively.

Successful alfalfa cultivation relies on careful planning, preparation, and implementation. Selecting high-quality seeds, preparing a suitable seedbed, and implementing proper fertilization and irrigation practices are crucial for the establishment and growth of the crop. Additionally, effective weed management strategies play a vital role in maintaining the productivity and quality of alfalfa fields. By following the guidelines outlined in this article, you can increase your chances of achieving a healthy and productive alfalfa crop. Remember to consult with local agricultural experts and extension agents for region-specific advice and recommendations.

Selecting The Right Location

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a perennial legume that is widely grown for its high protein content and ability to fix nitrogen in the soil. It is commonly used as a forage crop for livestock and is also popular in organic gardening as a cover crop and green manure.

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Alfalfa requires full sun to thrive, so it is important to choose a location that receives at least 6-8 hours of sunlight per day. The soil should be well-drained, with a pH level between 6 and 7.5. Testing the soil’s pH and nutrient levels before planting is recommended, as alfalfa has specific requirements for optimal growth.

Soil Preparation

Preparing the soil correctly is crucial for successful alfalfa planting. Begin by removing any debris, rocks, or weeds from the planting area. Breaking up compacted soil and improving drainage is important for healthy root development. Tilling the soil to a depth of 8-10 inches will help loosen it and promote better nutrient absorption.

Once the soil is prepared, it is recommended to incorporate organic matter such as compost or well-rotted manure. Organic matter improves soil structure, adds nutrients, and enhances water retention capabilities. Spread a 2-3 inch layer of organic matter over the planting area and work it into the soil evenly.

Seed Selection

Choosing the right alfalfa seed is essential to ensure a vigorous and productive crop. There are numerous alfalfa varieties available, each with different characteristics such as yield potential, disease resistance, and adaptation to specific climates.

Consider factors such as the intended use of the alfalfa (grazing, hay production, or green manure), your local climate, and any specific pests or diseases prevalent in your area. Consult with your local agricultural extension office or a knowledgeable seed supplier to select a variety that best suits your needs.

Seeding Rates And Methods

The recommended seeding rate for alfalfa is typically 15-25 pounds per acre, or 0.5-1 pound per 1000 square feet for smaller areas. To achieve good seed-to-soil contact, it is common practice to mix the alfalfa seeds with an inert carrier, such as sand or granulated lime, before spreading them over the prepared soil.

Evenly broadcast the seed mixture over the planting area, ensuring proper coverage. Raking or lightly tamping the soil after seeding can help improve seed-to-soil contact. Finally, water the area thoroughly to moisten the soil and promote germination.

Watering And Irrigation

Proper watering is vital during the establishment phase of alfalfa. The seeds need consistent moisture to germinate and establish a strong root system. Water the planting area frequently but avoid overwatering, as excessive moisture can lead to disease problems and poor root development.

Once the alfalfa is established, it becomes more drought-tolerant. However, regular irrigation may still be necessary during dry periods. Aim for 1-2 inches of water per week, either through rainfall or supplemental irrigation. It is important to monitor soil moisture levels and adjust watering accordingly to ensure optimal growth.

Fertilizing Alfalfa

Alfalfa has moderate to high nutrient requirements for optimal growth and productivity. Prior to planting, it is advisable to conduct a soil test to determine the nutrient deficiencies and pH levels. Based on the test results, appropriate amendments can be made.

Alfalfa responds well to phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. Apply these nutrients according to the soil test recommendations before planting. Additionally, some growers prefer to incorporate a slow-release nitrogen fertilizer to ensure a steady supply of nitrogen throughout the growing season.

During the growing season, periodic foliar applications of a balanced liquid fertilizer can help provide the necessary nutrients to maintain vigorous growth. However, it is important to avoid excessive nitrogen fertilization, as it can lead to excessive leafy growth and reduced hay quality.

Pest And Disease Control For Alfalfa

Alfalfa can be susceptible to various pests and diseases, but with proper management, these risks can be minimized. Here are some common pests and diseases that affect alfalfa and how to control them:


  1. Alfalfa weevil: These green beetles can cause significant damage to the foliage. Scout for larvae and adults and use an appropriate insecticide if necessary. Cultural practices such as early harvest and proper irrigation can also help manage their populations.
  2. Aphids: These small insects suck sap from the plant, causing yellowing and curling of leaves. Natural enemies such as ladybugs and lacewings can help control aphid populations. If infestations are severe, insecticidal soap or neem oil can be applied.
  3. Cutworms: These caterpillars feed on young alfalfa plants, causing them to wilt or die. Apply a biological control called Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or use an appropriate insecticide.
  4. Crown and root rot: Fungal pathogens can cause damping-off, root rot, and wilt. Improve soil drainage and avoid overwatering to prevent these diseases. Crop rotation and planting disease-resistant varieties are also effective measures.
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  1. Bacterial wilt: This disease causes wilting and death of the plant. Avoid planting in poorly drained soils and practice crop rotation to reduce the risk of bacterial wilt.
  2. Anthracnose: This fungal disease causes spotted lesions on the leaves and stems. Avoid overhead irrigation and remove and destroy infected plant debris to prevent its spread. Fungicide applications may be necessary in severe cases.
  3. Verticillium wilt: This fungal disease leads to stunted growth and yellowing of leaves. Planting resistant varieties and avoiding excessive irrigation can help control the disease. Fungicides are generally not effective for managing Verticillium wilt.

Regular monitoring of the crop, early detection of pests or diseases, and timely intervention are key to successful pest and disease management in alfalfa.

Harvesting And Storing Alfalfa

The timing of harvest is crucial to maximize the nutritional quality and yield of alfalfa. Frequent cutting during periods of active growth is recommended to maintain high-quality forage. Here are some guidelines for harvesting and storing alfalfa:


  1. First Cut: For hay production, the first cut is typically made when the majority of plants show early bloom. This stage provides a balance between yield and quality. Cut the plants 2-3 inches above the ground to allow for regrowth.
  2. Subsequent Cuts: Subsequent cuts can be made based on the regrowth and the targeted hay quality. Generally, cutting at 28-35 day intervals is recommended, but this can vary depending on local conditions.
  3. Late-Season Cut: In preparation for a potential winter kill, a late-season cut can be made to reduce the amount of standing dead material left in the field.

Conditioning And Drying

After cutting, it is important to condition the hay properly to promote drying and reduce the risk of mold or spoilage. Conditioning involves fluffing the windrow or swath to expose more surface area to air circulation. This can be done using a hay tedder or rake.

Once conditioned, the hay needs to dry to a moisture content of 10-15% for safe storage. Avoid excessive drying, as it can lead to leaf shatter and loss of nutritional value. Regularly monitor the moisture content using a moisture meter to ensure optimal drying.


Proper storage of alfalfa hay is essential to maintain its nutrient value and prevent spoilage. Bales should be stored in a well-ventilated area that is protected from moisture and direct sunlight. Stacking bales on pallets or a moisture-proof surface helps prevent ground moisture absorption.

Regularly inspect stored hay for signs of mold, spoilage, or insect infestation. If any issues are detected, take immediate action to prevent further damage or loss.

Crop Rotation And Companion Planting With Alfalfa

Crop rotation is an important practice for maintaining soil health and managing pests and diseases. Alternating alfalfa with different crops helps break pest and disease cycles, improves soil fertility, and reduces weed pressure. Some suitable rotation crops for alfalfa include wheat, corn, soybeans, or other legumes.

Companion planting can also be beneficial for alfalfa. Planting companion plants with similar growth habits and nutrient requirements can enhance biological diversity, attract pollinators, and improve overall crop health. Some compatible companion plants for alfalfa include clover, vetch, oats, or other grasses.

Troubleshooting Common Alfalfa Planting Issues

Despite proper care and management, alfalfa may still encounter some planting issues. Here are some common problems and their possible solutions:

  1. Poor Germination: Inadequate seed-to-soil contact, improper soil moisture, or poor seed quality can result in poor germination. Improve seedbed preparation, ensure adequate soil moisture during planting, and use high-quality seeds to increase germination rates.
  2. Weed Competition: Weeds can compete with alfalfa for nutrients, water, and sunlight. Apply herbicides labeled for use in alfalfa to control weeds. Implement good cultural practices such as proper irrigation and timely cutting to minimize weed growth.
  3. Frost Damage: Late spring frosts can damage alfalfa plants. Selecting cold-tolerant varieties and timely cutting to encourage new growth can help mitigate frost damage.
  4. Root Diseases: Soil-borne pathogens can cause root diseases in alfalfa. Planting disease-resistant varieties, improving soil drainage, and practicing proper crop rotation can help manage root diseases.
  5. Nutrient Deficiencies: Nutrient deficiencies can lead to stunted growth and reduced yields. Conduct regular soil tests, amend the soil with appropriate fertilizers, and provide balanced nutrition to prevent nutrient deficiencies.


Successfully planting alfalfa requires careful consideration of factors such as location, soil preparation, seed selection, watering, fertilization, pest and disease management, harvesting, and storage. With proper planning and management, you can grow a healthy and productive alfalfa crop that will benefit livestock, improve soil health, and provide valuable nutrients for sustainable agriculture.


What Is The Best Time To Plant Alfalfa?

The best time to plant alfalfa is in the early spring or late summer. This allows the seeds to have enough moisture and time to establish before heavy frost or heat sets in.

What Type Of Soil Is Best For Growing Alfalfa?

Alfalfa grows well in a well-drained, loamy soil with a neutral pH of 6.4-7.5. Avoid planting in heavy or sandy soils that do not hold moisture well.

How Deep Should I Plant Alfalfa Seeds?

Alfalfa seeds should be planted at a depth of ¼ to ½ inch in the soil. Planting them too deep can result in poor emergence, while planting them too shallow can cause them to dry out quickly.

How Much Water Does Alfalfa Need?

Alfalfa needs about an inch of water per week, either through rainfall or irrigation. However, be careful not to overwater as this can lead to diseases and leaching of nutrients.

When Should I Harvest My Alfalfa?

Alfalfa can be harvested for hay when it reaches 10-12 inches in height. For grazing, it is best to let it grow to 18-20 inches before being grazed down to 4-6 inches. Harvesting at the correct height helps maintain the plant’s vigor and ensures high-quality forage.