How To Plant Geranium [ Full Guide ]

Geraniums are popular flowers known for their vibrant colors, long-lasting blooms, and low maintenance requirements. Whether you’re planting them in your garden, containers, or hanging baskets, it’s important to understand the specific needs of geraniums to ensure their successful growth and blooming. This comprehensive guide will walk you through the process of planting geraniums, from selecting the right varieties to preparing the soil and providing the optimal growing conditions.

Quick Answer: How To Plant Geranium

  1. Select the Right Geranium Varieties: Choose from zonal, ivy, or regal geraniums based on your preference for bloom color, size, and growing habits.
  2. Site Selection and Preparation: Pick a location that receives at least 6-8 hours of sunlight and has well-drained soil. Prepare the planting area by clearing away debris and ensuring proper drainage.
  3. Soil Requirements: Geraniums thrive in well-drained, slightly acidic soil with good fertility. Amend the soil with organic matter if needed.
  4. Planting Time: In cooler climates, plant geraniums in spring after the threat of frost has passed. In warmer regions, fall planting is suitable.
  5. Planting Depth: Dig a hole slightly larger than the root ball, place the geranium at the same level as it was in the pot, and backfill with soil.
  6. Aftercare: Water the geranium thoroughly after planting and provide regular watering, fertilization, and deadheading to encourage continuous blooming.

Now, let’s delve into each of these steps in greater detail.

Selecting The Right Geranium Varieties

Before you delve into planting geraniums, it’s important to select the right varieties that match your preferences and the growing conditions in your area. Geraniums come in various forms, each with its own unique features.

Zonal Geraniums

Zonal geraniums (Pelargonium x hortorum) are perhaps the most common type of geraniums cultivated in gardens. These plants are recognized for their large clusters of vibrant blooms in colors like red, pink, lavender, and white. Zonal geraniums are ideal for planting in garden beds and borders and are also popular choices for container gardening.

Ivy Geraniums

Ivy geraniums (Pelargonium peltatum) feature trailing or cascading growth habits, making them perfect for hanging baskets, window boxes, and containers where their abundant flowers can spill over the sides. They are available in a wide range of colors and are favored for their elegant, cascading foliage.

Regal Geraniums

Regal geraniums (Pelargonium domesticum), also known as Martha Washington geraniums, are beloved for their showy, ruffled flowers and attractive variegated foliage. They are typically larger and more upright than other geranium varieties, making them a great choice for adding height and drama to garden beds.

When selecting geraniums, consider the size of the plant, the colors of the blooms, and the growth habits to determine which varieties will best suit your gardening needs and aesthetic preferences.

Site Selection And Preparation

Once you’ve selected the geranium varieties, the next crucial step is to choose the right location for planting and to prepare the planting site accordingly.

Sunlight Requirements

Geraniums thrive in locations with ample sunlight. Choose a planting site that receives at least 6-8 hours of direct sunlight each day. Insufficient sunlight can result in leggy growth and reduced blooming, so it’s essential to select a spot with adequate light exposure.

Soil Drainage

Well-drained soil is vital for the healthy growth of geraniums. Ensure that the planting area provides proper drainage to prevent waterlogged conditions, which can lead to root rot and other problems. If the soil in the selected location doesn’t drain well, consider implementing raised beds or improving drainage with amendments.

Site Preparation

Prepare the planting area by clearing away any debris, weeds, or other obstructions. Loosen the soil to a depth of at least 8-10 inches to create a hospitable environment for the geranium roots. This will also facilitate better water penetration and root development.

Soil Requirements For Geraniums

Geraniums are relatively adaptable to different soil types but tend to thrive in well-drained, slightly acidic soil with good fertility. Before planting, it’s a good practice to assess the soil and make any necessary amendments to create an optimal growing environment for the geraniums.

Soil Ph

The optimal soil pH for growing geraniums falls within the slightly acidic range of 6.0 to 6.5. Conduct a soil pH test using a simple kit available at garden centers or through your local cooperative extension service. If the soil pH is outside the ideal range, amend it with organic matter or sulfur to adjust the acidity levels.

Soil Fertility

Geraniums benefit from fertile soil that provides essential nutrients for healthy growth and abundant blooming. Prior to planting, enrich the soil with organic matter, such as compost or well-rotted manure, to boost fertility and improve soil structure. This organic amendment will help the soil retain moisture and nutrients, promoting robust growth in the geraniums.


In addition to soil pH and fertility, proper drainage is crucial for the success of geraniums. If the soil in your planting area tends to retain water, consider adding coarse sand or organic matter, such as perlite or peat moss, to enhance drainage and aeration. This will prevent waterlogged conditions and mitigate the risk of root rot, which can be detrimental to geraniums.

Timing And Seasonal Considerations

The timing of planting geraniums plays a significant role in their establishment and subsequent growth. The optimal planting time varies depending on your location and the climatic conditions in your region.

Planting In Cooler Climates

In cooler climates, it’s best to plant geraniums in the spring after the threat of frost has passed. Planting too early when the soil is still cold and the risk of frost remains can stunt the growth of geraniums and compromise their overall health. Wait until the soil has warmed, and the evenings are consistently above freezing before transplanting geraniums into the garden.

Planting In Warmer Climates

In regions with milder winters and warmer temperatures, fall planting can be suitable for geraniums. By planting in the fall, geraniums have the opportunity to establish their root systems during the cooler months, allowing them to flourish and produce abundant blooms when the weather warms up in the spring.

By following the guidelines outlined in this comprehensive guide, you can ensure the successful planting of geraniums in your garden or containers. From selecting the right varieties to preparing the soil and providing the optimal growing conditions, each step plays a crucial role in the overall health and blooming of geraniums. With proper care and attention to detail, you can enjoy the beauty of geraniums in your landscape, adding vibrant colors and elegant foliage to your outdoor space.

Geranium Propagation Methods

Geraniums are popular flowering plants known for their vibrant colors and delicate blooms. They are relatively easy to grow and make a beautiful addition to any garden or patio. Whether you are a seasoned gardener or a beginner, learning how to properly plant geraniums is essential to ensure their health and longevity.

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Before we delve into the planting process, it’s important to understand the different methods of geranium propagation. This will help you decide which approach suits your needs and preferences.

1. Seeds

Starting geraniums from seeds is a cost-effective method, and it allows you to grow different varieties from scratch. However, it requires more time and patience compared to other propagation methods.

To propagate geraniums from seeds, follow these steps:

  1. Obtain high-quality geranium seeds from a reputable nursery or online retailer.
  2. Fill a seed tray or small pots with well-draining potting soil.
  3. Moisten the soil slightly.
  4. Sprinkle the geranium seeds evenly on the soil surface. Do not bury them too deep.
  5. Spray a fine mist of water over the seeds to settle them into the soil.
  6. Cover the tray or pots with a plastic dome or place them in a plastic bag to create a greenhouse-like environment.
  7. Place the tray or pots in a warm location with indirect sunlight. A temperature of around 70°F (21°C) is ideal for germination.
  8. Make sure to keep the soil moist but not waterlogged. Overwatering can lead to rot.
  9. Germination can take anywhere from 7 to 21 days. Once the seedlings have developed a few sets of true leaves, they can be transplanted into individual pots or a larger container.

2. Stem Cuttings

Propagating geraniums from stem cuttings is a popular and reliable method. It allows you to clone your favorite geranium plants and ensures that the new plants will have the same characteristics as the parent plant.

To propagate geraniums from stem cuttings, follow these steps:

  1. Select a healthy geranium plant with strong, non-flowering stems.
  2. Using a clean and sharp pair of scissors or pruning shears, cut a 3-4 inch (7-10 cm) section of the stem just below a leaf node (the point where a leaf emerges from the stem).
  3. Remove the lower leaves, leaving only a few sets on the stem’s upper section.
  4. Dip the cut end of the stem in a rooting hormone powder to promote root development.
  5. Fill a small pot with well-draining potting soil.
  6. Create a hole in the soil with a pencil or your finger and gently place the stem cutting into it.
  7. Firmly press the soil around the cutting to hold it in place.
  8. Water the cutting thoroughly until excess water drains out from the bottom of the pot.
  9. Place the pot in a warm location with bright, indirect sunlight.
  10. Keep the soil evenly moist and mist the cutting regularly to maintain high humidity.
  11. After 4-6 weeks, the cutting should have developed roots and can be transplanted into a larger pot or into the garden.

3. Division

Division is a method of propagating geraniums by separating a mature plant into smaller sections. This is typically done when the plant has become overcrowded or when you want to rejuvenate an older plant.

To divide geraniums, follow these steps:

  1. Choose a healthy, well-established geranium plant.
  2. Gently remove the plant from its container or dig it out from the garden bed using a garden fork or shovel.
  3. Shake off excess soil to expose the plant’s root system.
  4. Carefully separate the plant into smaller sections, making sure each division has a portion of the main stem and a healthy number of roots.
  5. Trim any damaged or excessively long roots.
  6. Fill individual pots or garden beds with well-draining potting soil.
  7. Plant each division in its own container or space them out in the garden bed, ensuring that the root system is covered with soil.
  8. Water the divisions thoroughly to help them settle in their new environment.

Preparing Geranium Transplants

Before planting geraniums, it’s important to prepare the transplants to ensure their health and establishment. Here’s how to properly prepare your geraniums for planting:

  1. Acclimate the plants: If you purchased geranium plants from a nursery, they may need some time to acclimate to their new surroundings. Place them in a shaded area for a few days before exposing them to direct sunlight.
  2. Harden off seedlings: If you started geraniums from seeds indoors, it’s crucial to gradually expose the young seedlings to outdoor conditions. Start by placing them in a sheltered spot outdoors for a few hours a day, gradually increasing their exposure until they’re ready for full sun.
  3. Water the transplants: Before planting, water the transplants thoroughly. This will help ensure the plants are well-hydrated and roots are moist, promoting a successful transition.
  4. Prune leggy stems: If your geraniums have long, leggy stems, you can trim them back by about one-third. This will encourage new growth and make the plants more compact and bushy.

Planting Geraniums In Containers

Geraniums are a popular choice for container gardening due to their compact size and ability to thrive in confined spaces. Whether you’re using pots, hanging baskets, or window boxes, here are the steps to plant geraniums in containers:

  1. Choose a suitable container: Select a container with drainage holes to prevent waterlogging. The size of the container should be large enough to accommodate the mature size of your geranium plant and allow room for root growth.
  2. Fill the container with potting soil: Use a well-draining potting soil mix that is lightweight and fertile. Avoid using regular garden soil, as it may become compacted and hinder drainage.
  3. Create a planting hole: Make a hole in the potting soil, slightly larger than the root ball of your geranium plant.
  4. Place the geranium in the container: Gently remove the geranium from its nursery pot and place it in the center of the planting hole. Ensure that the top of the root ball is level with or slightly above the soil surface.
  5. Backfill with soil: Fill the remaining space around the root ball with potting soil, gently pressing it to eliminate any air pockets. Avoid burying the stem too deeply, as it can lead to stem rot.
  6. Water thoroughly: Give the newly planted geranium a good watering until excess water drains from the bottom of the container. This will help settle the soil and establish good root-to-soil contact.
  7. Place the container in a suitable location: Geraniums require at least 6 hours of direct sunlight per day. Choose a location that provides the required sunlight and has protection from strong winds, if possible.
  8. Water and fertilize regularly: Geraniums planted in containers may require more frequent watering than those in garden beds, as they tend to dry out more quickly. Water the plants whenever the top inch of soil feels dry. Additionally, fertilize your container-grown geraniums every two to four weeks with a balanced liquid fertilizer or slow-release granules according to package instructions.
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Planting Geraniums In Garden Beds

Geraniums can also be planted directly in garden beds, adding a splash of color to flower borders, rock gardens, or cottage gardens. Here’s how to plant geraniums in garden beds:

  1. Choose a suitable location: Select an area in your garden that receives at least 6 hours of direct sunlight per day. Ensure the soil is well-draining and fertile, as geraniums prefer slightly acidic to neutral soil with a pH between 6.0 and 7.5.
  2. Prepare the soil: Remove any weeds or grass from the planting area. Loosen the soil to a depth of 8-10 inches (20-25 cm) using a fork or tiller. Incorporate organic matter such as compost, well-decomposed manure, or peat moss to improve soil structure and fertility.
  3. Dig a planting hole: Dig a hole in the prepared soil that is slightly larger than the root ball of your geranium plant.
  4. Place the geranium in the hole: Carefully remove the geranium from its nursery pot and place it in the center of the planting hole. Ensure that the top of the root ball is level with or slightly above the soil surface.
  5. Backfill with soil: Fill the hole around the root ball with soil, gently firming it to eliminate any air pockets. Avoid covering the stem too deeply.
  6. Water thoroughly: Give the newly planted geranium a deep watering, ensuring that the water reaches the root zone. This will help the plant establish itself and prevent drought stress.
  7. Mulch around the plant: Apply a layer of organic mulch, such as straw, shredded leaves, or wood chips, around the base of the plant. This will help conserve moisture, suppress weed growth, and regulate soil temperature.
  8. Water and fertilize regularly: Water the geranium plants deeply once a week or whenever the top inch of soil feels dry. Fertilize the plants every four to six weeks with a balanced slow-release granular fertilizer according to package instructions.

Planting geraniums can be a rewarding and enjoyable gardening experience. Whether you choose to start from seeds, propagate from cuttings, or divide mature plants, geraniums are a versatile addition to any garden or container display. By following the steps outlined in this article, you will be well-equipped to propagate and plant geraniums successfully. Remember to provide your geraniums with the appropriate care, such as regular watering, suitable sunlight, and occasional fertilization, to ensure they thrive and reward you with their striking blooms.

Watering And Fertilizing Geraniums

Geraniums are beautiful flowering plants that are popular in gardens and containers all over the world. They are known for their vibrant colors and the ability to thrive in different climates. Planting geraniums in your garden or on your balcony is a great way to add color and beauty to your outdoor space.

Proper watering and fertilizing are essential for the healthy growth and blooming of geraniums. It is important to find the right balance between under watering and overwatering to ensure optimal growth.

  1. Watering: Geraniums require moderate watering. Before planting, prepare the soil by adding organic matter to improve its water-holding capacity. After planting, water the geraniums thoroughly, ensuring that the soil is evenly moist. Avoid waterlogging the plants, as this can lead to root rot. In general, watering once or twice a week should be adequate, but adjust the frequency based on the weather conditions and the moisture needs of the plants.

  2. Fertilizing: Geraniums benefit from regular fertilization to promote healthy growth and abundant flowering. Apply a slow-release balanced fertilizer or a liquid fertilizer every 4-6 weeks during the growing season. Nitrogen-rich fertilizers are beneficial for promoting leafy growth, while phosphorous-rich fertilizers enhance flower production. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for the appropriate dosage and application method. Avoid excessive fertilization, as it can result in weak and leggy growth.

Geranium Care And Maintenance

To ensure the health and longevity of your geranium plants, it is essential to provide proper care and maintenance. Here are some important care tips to keep in mind:

  1. Sunlight: Geraniums thrive in full sun to partial shade. Place your geraniums in a location that receives at least 6 hours of direct sunlight per day. If planting them in containers, ensure the containers are placed in the sunniest spot available.

  2. Temperature: Geraniums can tolerate a wide range of temperatures, but they prefer moderate temperatures between 65-75°F (18-24°C). Avoid planting them in areas with extreme heat or frost.

  3. Soil: Geraniums prefer well-draining soil with a pH level between 6.0 and 7.5. Soil that is rich in organic matter helps retain moisture while allowing excess water to drain away. Amend heavy clay soils with compost or sand to improve drainage.

  4. Pruning: Regular pruning helps maintain the shape of geranium plants and encourages new growth and blooming. Pinching off spent blooms promotes continuous flowering throughout the season. Additionally, pruning leggy stems helps to promote a bushier growth habit.

  5. Deadheading: Removing faded flowers, or deadheading, is crucial for encouraging the growth of new blooms. This prevents the plant from diverting energy into producing seeds and encourages it to invest in more flower production.

  6. Overwintering: Geraniums are perennial plants in warmer regions but are often grown as annuals in colder climates. If you live in an area with mild winters, you can overwinter your geraniums indoors. Trim the plants back to a more manageable size, repot them in a well-draining potting mix, and place them in a cool and bright location indoors. Reduce watering and fertilization during this period.

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Controlling Pests And Diseases

While geraniums are generally hardy plants, they can be susceptible to certain pests and diseases. However, with proper care and regular monitoring, these issues can be managed effectively. Here are some common pests and diseases that may affect geraniums, along with their control measures:

  1. Aphids: These tiny insects feed on the sap of the plant and can cause stunted growth, distorted leaves, and the spread of viral diseases. Control aphids by regularly inspecting your plants and removing them manually or by using a strong blast of water to dislodge them. Alternatively, you can use an organic insecticidal soap or neem oil to treat severe infestations.

  2. Caterpillars: Caterpillars, such as the cabbage looper and tobacco budworm, can eat through foliage, resulting in skeletonized leaves. Handpick caterpillars and destroy them. You can also use biological control methods such as introducing natural predators like ladybugs or using Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) insecticide.

  3. Botrytis Blight: Also known as gray mold, this fungal disease causes a grayish mold on leaves, buds, and stems. Ensure adequate air circulation around your geranium plants and avoid overhead watering. Remove infected plant parts promptly and dispose of them to prevent further spread. Fungicidal sprays can be used as a preventative measure.

  4. Powdery Mildew: Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that forms a white powdery coating on leaves, stems, and flowers. Provide good air circulation, avoid overcrowding, and water early in the day to allow foliage to dry. Use a fungicidal spray specifically formulated for powdery mildew control if necessary.

  5. Root Rot: Overwatering or poorly draining soil can lead to root rot, which causes the roots to become mushy and discolored. To prevent root rot, ensure that the soil is well-draining and avoid excessive watering. If root rot occurs, consider repotting the plant in fresh soil and trimming away any affected roots.

Regularly inspecting your geranium plants and promptly addressing any pest or disease issues will help keep them healthy and thriving.

Harvesting And Preserving Geraniums

While geraniums are primarily grown for their ornamental value, some varieties can also be harvested for culinary or aromatic purposes. Here’s how you can harvest and preserve geraniums:

  1. Harvesting blooms: To harvest geranium flowers, choose blooms that are fully open and healthy-looking. Use clean, sharp scissors to cut the stems just below the base of the flower head. Avoid cutting more than one-third of the plant’s blooms at a time, as this can weaken the plant.

  2. Culinary uses: Some geranium varieties, such as rose-scented geraniums, have edible flowers and leaves that can be used in cooking and baking. The flowers can be used to garnish salads, desserts, and drinks, while the leaves can be infused in syrups, teas, or used as a flavoring in various recipes.

  3. Preserving blooms: To preserve geranium blooms, you can air-dry them. Gather small bunches of flowers and tie them together with a string or twine. Hang them upside down in a well-ventilated area away from direct sunlight. Once dry, store the dried flowers in an airtight container in a cool, dark place.

  4. Making scented oils and sachets: You can also create scented oils or sachets using dried geranium flowers. To make scented oil, place dried flowers in a jar and cover them with a carrier oil such as almond or jojoba oil. Let it sit for a few weeks in a sunny spot, strain the oil, and store it in a clean, airtight container. For scented sachets, fill cotton or muslin bags with the dried flowers and place them in drawers or closets to impart a pleasant aroma.

Preserving geraniums allows you to enjoy their beauty and fragrance even after the growing season has ended.


Planting geraniums can be a rewarding experience, whether you choose to grow them in your garden, balcony, or containers. By following the guidelines outlined in this article, you can ensure that your geraniums thrive and provide you with beautiful blooms throughout the growing season. Remember to provide adequate sunlight, water, and fertilizer, as well as regular care and maintenance. Monitor for pests and diseases and take appropriate measures to control them. Lastly, consider harvesting and preserving geraniums for culinary or aromatic purposes. With a little effort and attention, you can enjoy the vibrant colors and delightful fragrance of geraniums in your outdoor space.


How Often Should I Water My Geraniums?

Geraniums prefer soil that is moist, but not waterlogged. Water your geraniums when the top inch of soil is dry. Do not let the soil stay too dry or too wet, as this can cause root rot or dehydration.

When Is The Best Time To Plant Geraniums?

The best time to plant geraniums is in late spring or early summer, when the soil has warmed up and all risk of frost has passed. This will give the plants enough time to establish before colder weather sets in.

How Much Sunlight Do Geraniums Need?

Geraniums thrive in full sun, meaning at least six to eight hours of direct sunlight per day. However, they can tolerate partial shade, especially in hotter climates. To ensure healthy and vigorous growth, make sure your geraniums receive adequate sunlight.

How Do I Prepare The Soil For Planting Geraniums?

Geraniums prefer well-draining soil, so make sure to loosen the soil and remove any large rocks or debris before planting. You can also add some organic matter, such as compost, to improve the soil’s texture and nutrients.

Do Geraniums Need Fertilizer?

Yes, geraniums benefit from regular fertilizing. Use a balanced fertilizer with equal amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium every two weeks during the growing season. Be sure to follow the package instructions for proper application.