How To Plant Hibiscus [ Full Guide ]

Hibiscus plants are known for their stunning flowers and they make a beautiful addition to any garden. Proper planting and care are essential for these tropical and subtropical plants to thrive. In this comprehensive guide, we will walk you through the steps to successfully plant hibiscus, from choosing the right variety and location to preparing the soil and selecting healthy plants.

Hibiscus plants are known for their large, showy flowers that come in an array of colors including vibrant reds, pinks, yellows, and whites. They are popular in gardens and landscapes due to their striking appearance and relatively low maintenance requirements. Understanding the specific needs of hibiscus plants and providing the right conditions for growth is essential for their successful cultivation.

Quick Answer: How To Plant Hibiscus

Planting hibiscus involves selecting the right variety, choosing the perfect location, preparing the soil, and purchasing healthy plants. Once you have all the necessary components, follow these steps:

  1. Choose the right variety of hibiscus based on your climate and space.
  2. Select a location with full sun to partial shade and well-draining soil.
  3. Prepare the soil by amending it with organic matter and ensuring proper drainage.
  4. Purchase healthy hibiscus plants from reputable nurseries or garden centers.
  5. Plant the hibiscus at the right depth, water thoroughly, and provide regular care and maintenance.

Choosing The Right Variety Of Hibiscus

Before you plant hibiscus, it’s important to choose the right variety that suits your climate and space. There are different types of hibiscus, but the two most commonly grown are tropical hibiscus and hardy hibiscus.

Tropical Hibiscus (Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis)

Tropical hibiscus, also known as Chinese hibiscus, is a popular choice for its striking, large flowers and glossy foliage. These hibiscus plants thrive in warm, tropical climates and are often grown as ornamental shrubs or hedges. They are not cold-hardy and can be grown outdoors only in zones 9-11. In colder climates, they can be grown in containers and brought indoors during the winter.

Hardy Hibiscus (Hibiscus Moscheutos)

Hardy hibiscus, also known as Rose Mallow, is a perennial plant that is more cold-tolerant than tropical hibiscus. These plants are well-suited for growing in temperate regions and are known for their large, showy flowers that bloom in late summer. Hardy hibiscus is an excellent choice for garden beds or borders and can withstand colder winters, thriving in zones 4-9.

Selecting The Perfect Location For Planting

Hibiscus plants thrive in locations that provide full sun to partial shade. When selecting a location for planting, consider the following factors:

  1. Sunlight: Hibiscus plants require at least 6 hours of sunlight per day to bloom profusely. Choose a spot with ample sunlight, especially in cooler climates, to ensure the plant receives sufficient warmth and light.

  2. Soil Drainage: Ensure that the planting location has well-draining soil to prevent waterlogging, which can lead to root rot. Avoid areas with compacted or clayey soil, as hibiscus plants prefer moist, but not waterlogged, conditions.

  3. Protection from Harsh Winds: While hibiscus plants enjoy gentle breezes, they should be protected from strong, damaging winds that can cause the delicate foliage and flowers to become damaged.

Preparing The Soil For Planting

Proper soil preparation is crucial for the successful growth of hibiscus plants. Follow these steps to prepare the soil for planting:

  1. Soil Testing: Start by testing the soil to determine its pH and nutrient levels. Hibiscus plants thrive in slightly acidic to neutral soil with a pH range of 6.0 to 7.0. If necessary, amend the soil to achieve the ideal pH level.

  2. Improving Drainage: If the soil is heavy or poorly draining, amend it with organic matter such as compost, well-rotted manure, or peat moss. This will improve the soil structure and enhance drainage, ensuring that water does not accumulate around the roots.

  3. Mulching: After planting, apply a layer of organic mulch, such as wood chips or pine bark, around the base of the plant. Mulch helps retain soil moisture, suppresses weed growth, and regulates soil temperature.

Selecting And Purchasing Healthy Hibiscus Plants

When purchasing hibiscus plants, it’s crucial to select healthy specimens to ensure successful establishment and long-term growth. Here’s what to look for when buying hibiscus plants:

  1. Healthy Foliage: Inspect the plant for signs of pests, disease, or damage. Healthy hibiscus plants should have vibrant green leaves without discolored spots or yellowing.

  2. Strong Stems and Branches: Choose plants with sturdy, well-branched stems that are free from any signs of wilting or weakness.

  3. Root System: If possible, choose plants with well-developed root systems. Avoid plants with roots that are pot-bound or excessively root-bound, as this can lead to transplant shock and hinder growth after planting.

  4. Reputable Nurseries: Purchase hibiscus plants from reputable nurseries or garden centers that offer high-quality, well-cared-for specimens.

Planting The Hibiscus

Now that you’ve selected the right variety, chosen the perfect location, and prepared the soil, it’s time to plant the hibiscus.

  1. Digging the Hole: Dig a hole that is twice as wide and just as deep as the plant’s root ball. This will provide ample space for the roots to spread out and establish themselves.

  2. Placing the Plant: Gently remove the hibiscus plant from its container and place it in the center of the hole. Position the plant so that the top of the root ball is level with the surrounding soil.

  3. Backfilling: Fill the hole with the amended soil, gently tamping it down to remove any air pockets. Water the plant thoroughly to settle the soil and ensure good root-to-soil contact.

  4. Watering and Mulching: After planting, water the hibiscus thoroughly to help the roots establish. Apply a layer of mulch around the base of the plant to conserve moisture and suppress weed growth.

  5. Post-Planting Care: Provide regular watering, especially during dry periods, and monitor the plant for any signs of stress, disease, or pest infestations. Fertilize the hibiscus plant according to the specific needs of the variety you have chosen.

Successfully planting hibiscus involves careful consideration of the variety, location, soil preparation, and plant selection. By following the steps outlined in this guide, you can ensure that your hibiscus plants have the ideal conditions for healthy growth and abundant flowering. With proper care and maintenance, your hibiscus plants will reward you with stunning blooms and a vibrant addition to your garden or landscape.

Planting Hibiscus In Containers

Hibiscus plants are known for their vibrant, showy flowers and lush green foliage. They are relatively easy to care for and can be grown in both containers and in the ground. Whether you are a beginner gardener or an experienced plant enthusiast, learning how to properly plant and care for hibiscus can ensure their healthy growth and bountiful blooms.

Planting hibiscus in containers is a great option for those who have limited space or want the flexibility to move the plant around. Here are the steps to successfully plant hibiscus in containers:

  1. Choose the Right Container: Select a container that is at least 16 inches in diameter and has drainage holes at the bottom. Hibiscus plants have long roots, so choose a deep container that can accommodate their growth.

  2. Prepare the Potting Mix: Create a well-draining potting mix by combining equal parts of high-quality potting soil, perlite, and compost. This mixture will provide the necessary nutrients and aeration for the hibiscus plant.

  3. Plant the Hibiscus: Fill the container with the potting mix, leaving a few inches of space at the top. Gently loosen the root ball of the hibiscus plant and place it in the center of the container. Make sure the plant is at the same level as it was in its original container. Backfill with the potting mix, pressing lightly to eliminate air pockets.

  4. Water the Plant: Thoroughly water the hibiscus plant immediately after planting. This will help settle the soil and promote root establishment. Keep the soil moist but not waterlogged, as hibiscus plants are susceptible to root rot.

  5. Provide Adequate Sunlight: Hibiscus plants thrive in full sunlight, so place the container in a location that receives at least six hours of direct sunlight per day. If you live in a hot climate, consider providing some afternoon shade to prevent the plant from getting scorched.

  6. Maintain Regular Watering: Water the hibiscus plant regularly, aiming to keep the soil evenly moist. Check the soil moisture by inserting your finger into the top inch of soil. If it feels dry, water the plant deeply until the excess water drains from the drainage holes.

  7. Fertilize When Needed: Hibiscus plants benefit from regular fertilization to promote healthy growth and abundant blooms. Use a balanced slow-release fertilizer formulated for flowering plants. Apply the fertilizer according to the package instructions, typically every six to eight weeks during the growing season.

  8. Monitor for Pests and Diseases: Keep a close eye on your hibiscus plant for any signs of pests or diseases. Common pests include aphids, whiteflies, and spider mites. Treat any infestations promptly using organic insecticidal soap or horticultural oil. If you notice any disease symptoms like yellowing leaves or spotting, consult a local garden center for proper diagnosis and treatment.

RELATED  How To Plant Cherry Blossom Tree [ Full Guide ]

Planting Hibiscus In The Ground

Planting hibiscus in the ground allows them to spread their roots freely and establish larger, more robust plants. Here’s how you can plant hibiscus in the ground:

  1. Choose the Right Location: Select a sunny location in your garden with well-drained soil. Hibiscus plants prefer soil with a slightly acidic to neutral pH range (around 6.0 to 7.0). Avoid planting them in areas that are prone to waterlogging, as this can lead to root rot.

  2. Prepare the Planting Hole: Dig a hole that is double the width and depth of the hibiscus plant’s root ball. Loosen the soil in the hole with a garden fork or shovel to improve drainage and root penetration.

  3. Amend the Soil: If your soil is heavy clay or lacks organic matter, amend it with compost or well-rotted manure. This will improve its fertility, drainage, and moisture-retention capacity.

  4. Plant the Hibiscus: Carefully remove the hibiscus plant from its container, gently loosen the roots, and place it in the center of the planting hole. Adjust the plant’s position so that it is level with the surrounding soil. Backfill the hole with the amended soil, firming it gently around the roots.

  5. Water the Plant: Give the hibiscus plant a thorough watering immediately after planting. This will help settle the soil and encourage root growth. Keep the soil moist but not overly wet during the establishment period.

  6. Mulch the Soil: Apply a layer of organic mulch, such as wood chips or straw, around the base of the plant. This will help conserve soil moisture, suppress weed growth, and regulate soil temperature. Keep the mulch a few inches away from the stem to prevent moisture-related issues.

  7. Watering Schedule: During the growing season, water the hibiscus plant deeply once or twice a week, depending on rainfall and soil moisture levels. Aim to provide about 1 inch of water per week. Watering deeply encourages the plant’s roots to grow deeper and makes it more resilient to drought.

  8. Fertilization: Hibiscus plants benefit from regular feeding with a balanced slow-release fertilizer. Apply the fertilizer around the drip line of the plant, following the package instructions. Start fertilizing in early spring and continue every six to eight weeks throughout the growing season.

  9. Prune as Needed: Prune the hibiscus plant to maintain its shape, remove dead wood, and encourage bushier growth. Pruning is best done in late winter or early spring before new growth begins. Use clean, sharp pruners to make clean cuts just above a leaf node or bud.

  10. Monitor for Pests and Diseases: Regularly inspect the hibiscus plant for signs of pests or diseases. Common pests include aphids, mealybugs, and scale insects. Treat any infestations using appropriate insecticidal soaps or oils. Should you notice symptoms of diseases like leaf spot or powdery mildew, consult a local plant clinic for proper identification and treatment options.

Watering And Fertilizing Hibiscus

Proper watering and fertilizing are crucial for the health and vigor of hibiscus plants. Here are some tips on how to water and fertilize them effectively:

Watering:

  • Consistency is Key: Hibiscus plants prefer consistently moist soil, so it’s important to water them regularly. However, avoid over-watering as it can lead to root rot. Monitor the soil moisture by inserting your finger into the top inch of soil. If it feels dry, it’s time to water.

  • Deep Watering: When watering, aim to provide a deep soak rather than frequent shallow watering. This encourages the plant’s roots to grow deeper into the soil, making it more resilient to drought conditions.

  • Morning Watering: Water hibiscus plants in the morning to allow the foliage to dry before nighttime. Wet foliage during the night can increase the risk of fungal diseases.

  • Mulching: Apply a layer of organic mulch around the base of the plant to help retain soil moisture. Mulch also helps suppress weed growth and insulate the soil, preventing temperature fluctuations.

  • Container Plants: Container-grown hibiscus plants may require more frequent watering, especially during hot summer months. Check the soil moisture level regularly and adjust your watering schedule accordingly.

Fertilizing:

  • Balanced Fertilizer: Hibiscus plants benefit from regular feeding with a balanced slow-release fertilizer. Look for a fertilizer with an N-P-K ratio of 10-10-10 or similar. This balanced nutrient ratio promotes healthy foliage, robust root growth, and abundant blooms.

  • Start in Spring: Begin fertilizing hibiscus plants in early spring, when new growth starts to emerge. Apply the fertilizer according to the package instructions, typically every six to eight weeks throughout the growing season. Avoid fertilizing in late summer or fall, as this can stimulate tender growth that is susceptible to winter damage.

  • Container Plants: Container-grown hibiscus plants may require more frequent fertilization due to the limited nutrient availability in the potting mix. Use a water-soluble fertilizer diluted to half strength every two to three weeks during the growing season.

  • Organic Options: If you prefer organic fertilizers, use compost, well-rotted manure, or fish emulsion. These natural fertilizers provide slow-release nutrients and improve soil health over time.

RELATED  How To Plant Hop Rhizome [ Full Guide ]

Pruning And Deadheading Hibiscus

Pruning and deadheading are important maintenance tasks for hibiscus plants. Proper pruning helps control the plant’s size, shape, and encourages branching, while deadheading promotes continuous blooming. Here’s how to prune and deadhead hibiscus:

Pruning:

  • Winter Pruning: Prune hibiscus plants in late winter or early spring before new growth begins. This ensures the removal of any winter damage and encourages vigorous growth in the coming season.

  • Remove Dead Wood: Start by removing any dead, diseased, or damaged wood. Cut back to healthy wood just above a bud or leaf node. Use clean, sharp pruners to make clean cuts and minimize the risk of infection.

  • Control Size: If you want to control the size of your hibiscus, trim back the branches to your desired height and shape. Aim to maintain an open, airy habit to promote air circulation and reduce the risk of diseases.

  • Encourage Bushier Growth: To encourage bushier growth, prune back the tips of the branches. Make the cut just above a bud or leaf node to stimulate the growth of new shoots below the cut.

  • Renewal Pruning: Every few years, consider a more drastic pruning technique called renewal pruning. This involves cutting the entire plant back to about half its size, rejuvenating its growth and overall health.

Deadheading:

  • Remove Spent Blooms: Deadheading is the process of removing faded or spent blooms. Hibiscus plants produce flowers continuously, but removing old blooms can redirect energy towards producing new flowers.

  • Promote New Blooms: Deadhead hibiscus by pinching or cutting off the spent flower just above a leaf node or bud. This will prevent seed formation and encourage the plant to produce new flower buds.

  • Regular Deadheading: Deadhead your hibiscus plant regularly throughout the blooming period. This will ensure a constant display of fresh, vibrant flowers.

Growing hibiscus plants can be a rewarding experience, as their stunning blooms add beauty and color to any garden. By following the planting guidelines outlined in this article, you can ensure healthy growth and abundant flowering for your hibiscus plants, whether planted in containers or in the ground. Remember to provide proper watering, fertilization, and regular pruning to keep your hibiscus plants thriving year after year. With a little care and attention, your hibiscus garden will become a showstopper that will bring joy and admiration to all who see it.

Step 1: Choosing The Right Variety

Hibiscus is a vibrant and beautiful flowering plant that can add a splash of color to any garden or landscape. With its tropical origins, hibiscus plants thrive in warm climates and are often associated with a tropical paradise. Planting and caring for hibiscus requires some attention to detail, but the rewards are well worth the effort.

Before planting your hibiscus, it’s essential to select the right variety for your climate and garden conditions. There are hundreds of hibiscus varieties available, each with its unique characteristics and requirements. Some popular types include the tropical hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), hardy hibiscus (Hibiscus moscheutos), and rose of Sharon (Hibiscus syriacus).

If you live in a warm climate, you have a wide range of hibiscus varieties to choose from. Tropical hibiscus, with its large and showy flowers, is a popular choice for these regions. Hardy hibiscus, on the other hand, is more suitable for moderate climates as it can withstand colder temperatures. Rose of Sharon is another cold-hardy variety that can tolerate harsher winter conditions.

Consider factors such as bloom color, plant size, and blooming season when selecting your hibiscus variety. This will help ensure that your hibiscus plants meet your aesthetic preferences and fit well within your garden landscape.

Step 2: Selecting An Ideal Location

Hibiscus thrives in full sunlight, so choose a location that receives at least six hours of direct sunlight each day. Additionally, it’s important to select a spot with well-drained soil as hibiscus does not fare well in waterlogged conditions.

Prepare the soil by loosening it with a garden fork or tiller to improve drainage. The soil should be rich in organic matter, with a pH level between 6.0 and 7.0. If your soil is heavy clay or sandy, amend it with compost or well-rotted manure to improve its texture and fertility.

Consider planting hibiscus near a wall or fence to provide some protection from strong winds, especially in regions prone to gusty conditions. This will protect the plant from wind damage and ensure its delicate flowers and foliage remain intact.

Step 3: Planting Process

Now that you have chosen the right variety and location, it’s time to plant your hibiscus. Follow these steps for a successful planting process:

  1. Dig a hole that is approximately twice the width and depth of the root ball. Ensure that the hole is large enough to accommodate the roots without bending or crowding them.

  2. Gently remove the hibiscus plant from its container and place it in the hole. Position the plant so that the top of the root ball is level with the soil surface.

  3. Backfill the hole with soil, firmly pressing it around the base of the plant to eliminate any air pockets. Water thoroughly to settle the soil and provide hydration to the newly planted hibiscus.

  4. Apply a layer of mulch, such as wood chips or bark, around the base of the plant. This will help conserve moisture, suppress weed growth, and provide insulation to the roots.

  5. Water the hibiscus regularly after planting, keeping the soil consistently moist but not saturated. During hot summer months, you may need to water more frequently to prevent moisture stress.

Managing Pests And Diseases

Like any plant, hibiscus is susceptible to pests and diseases. However, with proper care and attention, you can minimize the risks and keep your hibiscus healthy and blooming. Here are some common pests and diseases that affect hibiscus and how to manage them:

Aphids

Aphids are small, sap-sucking insects that can infest hibiscus plants. They typically cluster around new growth, causing distorted leaves and stunted growth. To control aphids, you can spray your hibiscus with a gentle insecticidal soap or use a strong jet of water to dislodge them from the plant. Ladybugs and lacewings are natural predators of aphids and can help keep their population in check.

Whiteflies

Whiteflies are tiny insects that congregate on the undersides of hibiscus leaves, sucking the sap and leaving behind a sticky residue called honeydew. This can lead to reduced plant vigor and the development of sooty mold. To manage whiteflies, introduce natural predators like green lacewings or use yellow sticky traps to trap the adult flies. Neem oil, horticultural oil, or insecticidal soap can also be used to control whitefly populations.

Scale Insects

Scale insects are tiny pests that attach themselves to the stems and leaves of hibiscus plants, sucking the plant’s sap. They form hard, shell-like coverings that protect them from predators and pesticides. To manage scale insects, scrape them off the plant using a soft brush or sponge, and apply insecticidal soap or horticultural oil to suffocate any remaining pests.

RELATED  How To Plant Black Eyed Susan [ Full Guide ]

Fungal Diseases

Hibiscus can be susceptible to fungal diseases like powdery mildew and leaf spot. Powdery mildew appears as a white, powdery coating on leaves, while leaf spot causes brown or black spots on the foliage. To prevent fungal diseases, water your hibiscus in the morning to allow time for the foliage to dry before evening. Provide adequate spacing between plants to promote air circulation and avoid overcrowding. If fungal infections occur, apply a fungicide recommended for ornamental plants according to the label instructions.

Overwintering Hibiscus

Depending on your climate, you may need to overwinter your hibiscus plants to protect them from frost or cold temperatures. Here’s how to prepare your hibiscus for winter:

  1. Prune: Before the first frost, trim back your hibiscus plants by about one-third to reduce their size and make them easier to manage during winter. Remove any dead or diseased branches.

  2. Dig-Up: If you live in a region with freezing winters, you may need to dig up your hibiscus plants and transfer them to containers. Carefully lift the plants, ensuring as much of the root ball remains intact. Transplant them into large pots filled with well-drained potting soil.

  3. Placement: Move the potted hibiscus plants indoors to a bright, cool location where the temperature remains above freezing. A sunroom, greenhouse, or a sunny window with adequate light can be suitable for overwintering.

  4. Watering: Reduce watering frequency during the winter months, allowing the soil to dry out slightly between waterings. Be mindful not to overwater, as too much moisture can lead to root rot.

  5. Prune Again: In late winter or early spring, before the last frost, prune your hibiscus plants again. This time, remove any dead or weak growth and shape the plant for the coming growing season.

Propagating Hibiscus

If you want to expand your hibiscus collection or share these beautiful plants with others, propagating hibiscus from cuttings is a great way to do it. Here’s a step-by-step guide to propagating hibiscus:

  1. Selecting the Cutting: Choose a healthy branch from an established hibiscus plant. The cutting should be around six inches long and have at least three leaf nodes.

  2. Preparing the Cutting: Cut the selected branch just below a leaf node using a sharp, sterilized knife or pruning shears. Remove any leaves from the lower half of the cutting to prevent excessive moisture loss.

  3. Rooting Hormone: Dip the cut end of the hibiscus cutting into a rooting hormone powder or gel to encourage root formation. Shake off any excess hormone.

  4. Planting the Cutting: Fill a small pot with well-draining potting mix or a mixture of peat moss and perlite. Make a hole in the soil with a pencil or your finger and gently place the cutting in the hole. Firmly press the soil around the cutting to ensure good contact.

  5. Maintaining Humidity: Cover the pot with a transparent plastic bag or place it in a propagating dome to create a humid environment. This will enhance the chances of successful rooting. Keep the cutting in a warm location with indirect sunlight.

  6. Root Development: Check the cutting regularly for signs of root development. Gently tug on the cutting, and if you feel resistance, it means roots have formed. This usually takes around 4-6 weeks.

  7. Transplanting: Once the cutting has rooted, it can be transplanted into a larger pot or directly into the ground. Ensure that the new location meets the sunlight and soil requirements mentioned earlier in this article.

Enjoying And Caring For Your Blooming Hibiscus

Now that your hibiscus plants are established and blooming, it’s important to provide them with the care they need to thrive. Here are some tips:

Watering: Hibiscus plants require regular watering, especially during hot and dry periods. Aim to keep the soil consistently moist but not waterlogged. Check the moisture level by inserting your finger into the soil, and water when the top inch feels dry.

Fertilizing: Hibiscus is a heavy feeder and requires regular fertilizer applications to promote healthy growth and abundant blooms. Use a balanced granular fertilizer designed for flowering plants and follow the dosage instructions provided. Apply the fertilizer every four to six weeks during the growing season.

Pruning: Regular pruning will help maintain the shape and size of your hibiscus plants, promote bushier growth, and remove any dead or diseased branches. Prune in late winter or early spring before new growth appears. Use sharp, sterile pruning shears to make clean cuts just above a leaf node.

Deadheading: Remove spent flowers from your hibiscus plants regularly to encourage continuous blooming. This process, known as deadheading, redirects the plant’s energy from seed production back into flower production.

Supporting: Depending on the variety, hibiscus plants may require support to prevent them from flopping over when laden with flowers. Install stakes or use a trellis to support the branches and keep them upright.

Mulching: Apply a fresh layer of mulch around the base of your hibiscus plants each spring. This will help conserve moisture, suppress weed growth, and regulate soil temperature.

Conclusion

Planting hibiscus may require some initial effort, but the stunning and vibrant blooms make it all worthwhile. By selecting the right variety, planting in the ideal location, and providing the necessary care, you can enjoy beautiful hibiscus flowers in your garden year after year. Remember to manage pests and diseases, overwinter your plants when needed, propagate new hibiscus plants, and maintain regular care to ensure their health and longevity. With these tips in hand, you’ll be well on your way to a successful and flourishing hibiscus garden.

FAQS

What Is The Best Time Of Year To Plant Hibiscus?

The best time to plant hibiscus is in the early spring, after the last frost in your area. This allows for the plant to establish itself before the hot summer weather sets in.

How Do I Choose The Right Location For Planting Hibiscus?

Hibiscus prefer full sun to partial shade, so choose a spot that receives at least 6 hours of sunlight per day. It is also important to choose a location with well-draining soil.

Do Hibiscus Require Any Special Soil Or Fertilizer?

Yes, hibiscus prefer rich, well-draining soil that is slightly acidic. To promote healthy growth, you can also use a slow-release fertilizer specifically formulated for hibiscus.

How Often Should I Water My Hibiscus?

Hibiscus should be watered thoroughly once or twice a week, depending on the weather and soil conditions. The soil should be kept slightly moist, but not waterlogged.

How Do I Avoid Pests And Diseases When Planting Hibiscus?

To prevent pests and diseases, it is important to keep the area around your hibiscus plant clean and free of debris. You can also use insecticidal soap or neem oil to treat any infestations. If you notice any signs of disease, such as yellowing leaves or black spots, prune affected areas and dispose of them properly.